воскресенье, 9 мая 2010 г.

The impact of missing out on basic education


‘No education or poor education limits individual capacity, the effects of which are magnified when extended through family, community, and country. Education determines the prospects of people and countries. Evidence is compelling that, while not sufficient by itself, education is a prerequisite for economic development, individual health and well-being, democracy, and poverty alleviation. Basic education, which encompasses early childhood development through early secondary school, is considered an antidote to the spread of both HIV/AIDS and abusive child labour. Studies link education to higher agricultural productivity, longer life expectancy rates, lower infant mortality rates, and greater political stability and tolerance. Education empowers people and gives them a stake in society.’ [1]

Less potential to earn a living

·         An adult without any schooling is likely to earn 50% less than an adult who has completed primary education. [2]
·         The exclusion of girls from basic education leads to slower economic growth and reduced income. [3] [4]
·         Recent research estimates the economic cost incurred when girls are not educated to the same standard as boys: ‘The economic cost to 65 low and middle income and transitional countries of failing to educate girls to the same standard as boys as a staggering USD 92 billion each year. This is just less than the USD 103bn annual overseas development aid budget of the developed world.’ [5]

Increased chance of early marriage

Education is key to preventing child marriage. Girls who miss out on an education are more likely to get married at a younger age.
·         In Senegal 20% of women who have attended primary school are married by the age of 18, compared to 36% who have not attended school. [6]
·         In Nicaragua, 16% of girls who have attended school get married before they are 18 compared to 45% of girls with no schooling. [7]
·         In Mozambique, 10% of girls who have attended school get married before they are 18 compared to 60% of girls with no schooling. [8]
·         Research conducted in Africa, Asia and Latin America concluded that women with no education get married five years earlier than women with seven or more years of schooling.  [9] [10] [11]

Higher fertility rates/population growth

·         Missing one year of primary education increases the total fertility of a woman by between 0.3 and 0.5 children.[12] [13]


[1] Teach a Child, Transform a Nation (2004) http://www.un-ngls.org/orf/cso/TeachV1.pdf
[2] Bartholomew (2006). It all starts with education. http://oneworldus.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474976793358
[3] Dollar and Gatti (1999). Gender Equality, Income and Growth: Are good times good for women? World Bank Policy Research Report on Gender and Development, Working Paper Series No.1 Washington DC
[5] PLAN (2008). Paying the price: The economic cost of failing to educate girls, PLAN: Children in Focus
[6] UNICEF (2005). Early marriage: a harmful traditional practice – a statistical exploration.
[7] International Center for Research on Women, 2007. Too Young to Wed: Education & Action Toward Ending Child Marriage. http://www.icrw.org/docs/2006_cmtoolkit/cm_all.pdf
[8] ibid
[9] World Bank (1993) World Development Report. Oxford University Press.
[10] Colclough and Lewin (1993) Educating All the Children: Strategies for Primary Schooling in the South.
[11] Summers (1994) Investing in All the People: Educating Women in Developing Countries. Seminar Paper 45.
[12] Abu-Ghaida and Klasen (2004) The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal
on Gender Equity, World Development, 32 (7), 1075-1107.
[13] Schultz (1997) Demand for Children in Low Income Countries. In Handbook of Population and Family Economics.

·         Comparative studies conducted across the developing world have concluded that women with no education have two to four more children than women with seven or more years of schooling.[1] [2] [3]
·         Uneducated women are less likely to use contraception and are therefore less able to space their pregnancies at healthy intervals [4]

Greater risk of FGM/C

Women who have low levels of education are more likely to have circumcised daughters.
·         In the Ivory Coast, girls who have mothers without any education are five times more likely to have undergone FGM/C than girls who have mothers with some education. [5]
·         In Tanzania, girls who have mothers without any education are three and a half times more likely to have undergone FGM/C than girls who have mothers with some education. [6]
·         In Kenya, girls who have mothers without any education are two and a half times more likely to have undergone FGM/C than girls who have mothers with some education. [7]
Circumcision levels are also generally higher among women with less education, indicating that circumcised girls are also likely to grow up with lower levels of education attainment. [8]

Limited agricultural productivity & increased malnutrition

Missing out on education perpetuates needless hunger. Gains in women’s education have had a significant impact on reducing malnutrition across the globe.
·         Children who do not go to school are more susceptible to malnutrition and disease. A 63-country study found that more productive farming due to increased female education accounted for 43% of the reduction in malnutrition achieved between 1970 and 1995. [9]
·         The children of uneducated mothers are more than twice as likely to die or be malnourished than children of mothers who have secondary or higher education. [10]

Increased child mortality rates

The correlation between parental education and child mortality has been extensively documented. ‘In almost all countries, child-death rates are inversely related to the level of maternal education’. [11]
The less educated the mother, the less healthy she and her child are likely to be.
·         A child born to an illiterate mother is 50% less likely to survive past the age of 5 and two times as likely to suffer from malnutrition when compared with children born to mothers who completed primary school. [12]




[1] World Bank (1993) World Development Report. Oxford University Press.
[2] Colclough and Lewin (1993) Educating All the Children: Strategies for Primary Schooling in the South.
[3] Summers (1994) Investing in All the People: Educating Women in Developing Countries. Seminar Paper 45.
[4] Abu-Ghaida and Klasen (2004) The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal
on Gender Equity, World Development, 32 (7), 1075-1107.
[5] UNICEF 2005a Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting - a statistical exploration http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/FGM-C_final_10_October.pdf
[6] ibid
[7] ibid
[8] ibid
[9] Smith and Haddad (1999). Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: a cross country analysis. International Food Policy research Institute (IFPRI). Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 60.
[10] Save The Children (2005) State of the world’s mothers
[11] Watkins (2001) Oxfam Education Report. Oxford: Oxfam
[12] Bicego and Ahmad (1996) Infant and Child Mortality, Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No.20.

Higher rates of HIV/AIDS

·         Children who do not finish primary school are twice as likely to be infected with HIV. [1]
·         A girl in Africa who does not go to school is three times more likely to contract HIV/AIDS than a girl who completes basic education. [2]
·         If all children received a primary education, 700,000 cases of HIV could be prevented each year. [3]
·         Among 15-18 year old girls in Zimbabwe, those who are enrolled in school are more than five times less likely to have HIV than those who have dropped out. [4]
·         Research conducted in Swaziland found that 70% of out-of-school youths were sexually active whereas only 30% of in-school youths were sexually active [5]
·         Uneducated mothers are less likely to seek medical care during pregnancy. They are also less likely to use the simple and inexpensive measures during labour and immediately after childbirth that can reduce the transmission of HIV from mother to child by more than 50%. [6]
·         Women with some secondary schooling are three times more likely than uneducated women to know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. [7]


[1] Global Aids Alliance Education and HIV/AIDS factsheet http://www.globalaidsalliance.org/page/-/PDFs/Education_factsheet_new.pdf
[3] Global Campaign for Education
[4] Global Coalition on Women and AIDS
[5] Whiteside et al. (2003) What is driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Swaziland? Durban: South Africa, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of Natal.
[6] Vandemoortele and Delamonica (2000). Education Vaccine Against HIV/AIDS, Current Issues in Comparative Education, 3, 1.
[7] Teach a Child, Transform a Nation (2004) http://www.un-ngls.org/orf/cso/TeachV1.pdf 

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